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Knafla, Binnie (1995, pp.8-13).
The expression « imagined community », originally reserved to refer to forms of solidarity based on national identity, has become common currency.
Emsley (1996) ; Levy (1996) ; the history of modern criminal justice in the Netherlands remains under-researched : exemplary studies are Manneke (1993) ; and van Ruller, Faber (1995).
A notable example is King (1984).
Davis (1985, ch.5).
A prosecuted case has been taken to mean every single prosecuted charge of larceny, embezzlement or receiving stolen goods ; this does not allow differentiation between offenders having several charges to their name, nor does it measure the number of offenders involved in every prosecuted charge.
This study is based on witnesses’ depositions in cases tried by the magistrates’ court (under the Summary Jurisdiction Act of 1879) and in the odd case of larceny tried by a higher court over the years 1882, 1890, 1898 and 1904 – the last year that is currently properly inventoried ; source : S[uffolk] R[ecord] O[fffice], I[pswich] B[orough] R[ecords], C8/8 Papers (April 1882, July 1882, Oct. 882, Jan. 883) ; (April 1890, July 1890, Oct. 890, Jan. 891) ; (April 1898, July 1898, Oct. 898, Jan. 899) ; (April 1904, July 1904, Oct. 904, Jan. 905) ; this data has been checked against the registers of the magistrates’ court (SRO, BB 15/2/1/2 to 26) and the calendars of the court of Quarter Sessions (SRO, IBR, C8/2, Rolls IL, 361 to 448) the classification scheme draws on Steer (1980, p.7, 73) for more information on each category see appendix for an application see Davis (1985, ch.5).
Our material is drawn from dossiers de procédure for the years 1879, 894, 902 and 1910, checked against the court registers (minutes du tribunal correctionnel). For the decade 1882-1892 hardly any dossiers have been preserved in addition, none of the other years can be entirely reconstituted source : A[rchives] D[épartementales du] Qalvados], U 4406, 4408, 3107, 3228, 2956, 2820, 2802, 3347, 2805, 4407 (for 1879) ; U 3083, 3238, 3360, 3402, 3283, 3017, 3139, 2992, 3309, 3235 (for 1894) ; U 2808, 2985, 3188, 3349, 3342, 3316, 3267, 3424, 3405, 3435, 3428, 3386 (for 1902) ; U 2912, 3000, 3024, 3210, 3055, 3241, 3294, 3298, 3299, 3449, 3390, 3071 (for 1910) ; for the court registers see ADC, series U 2275.
By larceny we have understood both the misdemeanour (délit) of common larceny (vol simple) and the felony (crime) of larceny as an employee (vol par un domestique ou homme de service à gages), the overwhelming majority of which were routinely sent for trial to the Correctional Court ; the felony of abus de confiance par salarié was also routinely « correctionalised » ; recel was a misdemeanour in French law on correctionalisation see also Santucci (1986, p.48, 257).
Included are cases of common larceny (eenvoudige diefstal), larceny as an employee (diefstal in dienstbaarheid), embezzlement (verduistering in persoonlijke dienstbetrekking), and receiving stolen goods (heling) ; under the 1886 Penal Code all medium-range offences and more serious crimes– henceforth bracketed together as misdrijven –were heard by Arrondissemental Courts only.
None of the surviving archives of prosecutorial offices in the Netherlands seem to have preserved procedural dossiers our case study relies on official reports (processen-verbaal) of the municipal police as an alternative source by checking offences reported to the local police against data from the court registers of corresponding years I have been able to compile samples 1886 and preceding years have been left out given the introduction of a new Penal Code in 1886 source : G[emeente] A[rchief] M[aastricht], Archief v. d. Commissaris van Politie, Nrs.108 & 702 (for 1890) ; Nrs.637, 704, 714 (for 1894) Nrs.710 & 719 (for 1898) ; Nrs.637, 638, 723 (for 1902) ; Nrs.639, 640, 728 (for 1906) ; for the court registers see R[ijks] A[rchief] L[imburg], Arrondissementsrechtbank Maastricht, Strafvonnissen, Nrs.491-493, 499-501, 510-513, 522-525, 534-537.
See categories 7 and 8 of Table 1.
See categories 16 to 19 of Table 1 ; on police skills and novel detection techniques see Emsley (1987, p. 191).
The English case study is based on the summary offence of common assault ; the French sample includes the misdemeanour of coups or coups et blessures, as well as assault and wounding of a parent or guardian, the only type of assault that was legally a felony but in practice repeatedly correctionalised ; the Dutch sample includes both the charges of mishandeling or mishandeling en verwonding and the distinct offence of assault (and wounding) of a parent, spouse or child – both were heard by the Arrondissemental Court ; see Mellaerts (1997, ch. 3) ; see also Davis (1989, pp. 413, 417-419).
The analysis is based on compilations of greater numbers of cases than those analysed for Table 1 ; for details and classification criteria see Mellaerts (1997, ch. 2).
Hay, Snyder (1989a, pp. 34-39, 42-45) ; Emsley (1987, pp. 147-150) ; Taylor (1998, pp. 577-580) ; Stone's Justices’ Manual (1891, pp. 126-129) ; Radzinowicz (1956, pp. 57-82) ; Radzinowicz, Hood (1968, p. 165).
Virtually all criminal proceedings for indictable offences began in the magistrates’ court ; following legislation passed between 1847 and 1879 local JP's evolved from examining magistrates into trial judges with respect to most minor property crimes ; on the preceding period see Hay (1983, pp. 178-179) ; Hay (1989b, p. 380).
It is estimated that on average only five percent of all prosecutions for minor property crime were formally in the hands of the police ; the analysis is based on the samples used for Table 1.
SRO, IBR, C8/8 Papers, Box 47 [Jan. 882] and S[uffolk] C[hronicle], 19 Nov. 881, Suppl. p. 2 (Th. Waller).
SC, 18 Sept. 1880, Suppl. p. 2 (H. Sergeant) ; it was common for the police to inform complainants of an offender's record and reputation (see, e. g., SC, 5 Sept. 1885, Suppl. p. 3 (Th. Bradbrook et al.)).
The ease with which a suspected thief could be arrested and taken into custody on flimsy evidence is also documented by those few cases which gave rise to civil actions for illegal arrest and false imprisonment (see, e. g., SC, 7 March 1891, p. 7 (H. Bennett v. R. . Fraser and Gilbey)).
SC, 20 March 1897, p. 6 (E.A. Keys) ; for an example of the first category see SRO, IBR, C8/8 Papers, Box 66 [Jan. 895] and SC, 3 Nov. 1894, p. 3 (E. Baldwin).
As explained in SC, 9 March 1889, Suppl. p. 3 (E. Daniels).
See SC, 14 April 1883, Suppl. p. 3 (F. Allen), SC, 14 April 1883, p. 6 (J.T. Clements), SC, 3 Nov. 1888, p.6 (A. Allard), SC, 17 Nov. 1894, p.7 (E.W. Cross), SC, 16 Jan. 1897, p.6 (H.R. Baker), SC, 10 Sept. 1898, p.7 (J. Price), SC, 17 June 1899, p.3 (H.W. Riches and P.W. Tait), SRO, IBR, BB 15/2/1/22, under nr. 231 (A.E. Watling), E[ast] A[nglian] D[aily] T[imes], 5 Aug. 1904, p.3 (Ch.W. Osborne).
SRO, BB 15/2/1/5&6 ; the absence of relevant depositions makes any interpretation a hazardous enterprise ; newspaper coverage provides some information.
The police were only entitled to arrest an offender if they had witnessed the act or had seen obvious marks of violence on the victim ; see Radzinowicz, Hood (1968, p. 175, 198) ; Davis (1989, p. 413, 417) ; Woods (1985, p. 169) ; note also a certain reluctance on the part of the police to arrest assailants when it was in their power to do so (see SC, 20 July 1889, p. 6 (J. Fozzard) ; SC, 27 May 1882, p. 7 (R. and J. Harvey) ; summonses could be granted free of charge provided there was sufficient evidence of injuries (see SC, 29 July 1899, p. 7 ([Anon.])).
My estimate is based on prosecutions for assault, as well as aggravated assault on women and children and applications for sureties of the peace – a singular English sanction applicable against persons who are threatening to attack someone physically– brought in 1886 and 1902 (source : SRO, BB 15/2/1/5&6, 22&23) : in 1886 29 out of 114 cases were dismissed, in 1902 22 out of 92.
For an explicit reference to magisterial custom see SC, 5 April 1884, Suppl. p.2 (F. Playford and C.A. Martindale) ; Stone's Justices’ Manual (1891, p. 133) ; note also that faced with such a request in the case of an indictable violent crime (e. ., malicious wounding) the court occasionally met a victim half-way by reducing the charge to a common assault (see, e. g., SC, 16 Oct. 897, p. 3 (W. Sheppard) ; I[pswich] J[ournal], 15 Dec. 899, p. 6 (A. Blyde)).
King (1996, pp. 46-47, 72) does agree that much more research is required ; see also Landau (1999).
On official thinking on the symbolical qualities of the jury system see, e. g., Emsley (1987, p. 162) ; Behlmer (1994, pp. 236-237).
See Steven's Directory of Ipswich, 1894 and various other local directories ; from 1893 the Ipswich bench counted 10 Liberals, 14 Conservatives and one Liberal Unionist (SC, 25 March 1893, p. 5) ; on the local é1ite see also Hills (1988).
Radzinowicz and Hood (1986, pp. 618-624) ; Emsley (1987, pp. 154-162).
Some reference to solicitations of private prosecutors and third parties is made by Radzinowicz and Hood (1986, p. 726), and Skyrme (1991, p. 272) ; a more substantial description of the intercession by private prosecutors or victims of crime in adjudication is presented by Davis (1989).
Despite the growing complexity of the law of evidence, magistrates’ courts were known to adopt a commonsensical and less rule-based approach ; see Report of the R. . on Divorce and Matrimonial Causes, vol., P[arliamentary] P[apers] 1912-13 (Cd. 479) XVIII, q. 1, 09 (testim. of Percy T. Pearce, repres. of Plymouth Incorp.Law Society) ; Waddy (1925, p. 18) ; Page (1936, pp. 30-31).
SC, 31 Aug. 1895, p. 6 (F. Krauter).
SC, 20 April 1889, Suppl. p. 2 (Ch. Read).
SC, 18 Nov. 1893, p. 6 (H. Stacey) ; SC, 21 Oct. 1893, p.7 (R. Gair) ; SC, 21 Sept. 1895, p.3 (J. . King and A. Palmer).
SC, 28 Jan. 1888, p. 6 (R. Snell) ; for other examples see SC, 15 May 1886, Suppl. p. 2 (A. Lockwood) ; SC, 16 Jan. 1890, p. 6 (J.E. Golding) ; SC, 8 Oct. 1891, p. 6 (A. Daniels) ; SC, 13 Aug. 1898, p. 7 (W.J. Rainer) ; EADT, 17 March 1896, p. 2 (J. Hughes).
Based on an extensive reading of newspaper coverage of domestic violence cases brought before the Ipswich magistrates’ court ; note that even in the case of an indictable violent crime (e.g., malicious wounding) magistrates could take into account the complainant's desire not to press the charge, as a result of which the charge could be reduced to a summary offence, the case could be tried on the spot and the offender could be bound over (see SC, 12 Sept. 1896, p. 7 (H. Smith)).
Martin (1990, pp. 137-142) ; Schnapper (1991, pp. 377-378).
The exception are a series of offences prosecuted by other administrative bodies.
Half of all private prosecutions were for slander, mostly relating to press offences see Schnapper (1991, pp. 378-387).
It has been observed that when drawing up an official report (procès-verbal) Commissioners and Inspectors exercised some discretion, probably with the permission of the parquet, because they had to ascertain whether the act amounted to an offence before forwarding the case to the Public Prosecutor (note that within the municipal police only senior police officials exercised these powers of investigation) see Lévy (1985, p. 64) ; Bernard (1987, p. 131) ; Santucci (1986, p. 25).
The police were the main agency in urban areas responsible for reporting offences to the prosecutor's office ; on the basis of prosecuted cases (see note 10) it is argued that offences witnessed by a police officer, most of which were quay pilferings, constituted only a tiny fraction of those known to the police.
ADC, U 2593, 6 Sept. 1902 (F. Vallet) ; the parquet archive provides our primary source material.
Dossiers of prosecuted cases (dossiers de procedure) contain a statement concerning or reference to the withdrawal of the complaint, if this had occurred ; there is a concentration of such statements or references in the dossiers of the sample years 1902, 1906, and 1910, and very few in those of the sample years 1879, 894 and 1898 (see note 17).
See, e. g., ADC, U 3228, 16 Aug. 1879 (A. Coupey) ; ADC, U 3083, 25 Jan. 1894 (V. Lemonnier) ; ADC, U 3402, 26 April 1894 (M. Dervillet) ; ADC, U 3188, Aug. 1902 (Vengeon) ; ADC, U 2876, 26 Feb. 1906 (Chistel).
See, e. g., ADC, U 2538, 31 May 1883 (D. Blanchard) ; ADC, U 2541, 16 June 1884 (P.Doux) ; ADC, U 2555, 7 June 1890 (Gravent and Albert) ; ADC, U 3049, 11 Jan. 1906 (Jousse).
See, e. g., ADC, U 2540, 7 Jan. 1885 (H. Saudin) ; ADC, U 2593, 6 Sept. 1902 (F. Vallet) ; ADC, U 4430,  (Cadet).
Sometimes in the form of an IOU ; see, e. g., ADC, U 3267, 11 Dec. 1902 (Lebourgeois) ; ADC, 2U/119,  (Girodias) ; ADC, U 4430,  (Cadet).
(My emphasis) ; ADC, U 2541, 3 June 1884 (A. Manchon and V. Tourmente).
Cases of wounding involving the use of a weapon appear to have been prosecuted irrespective of a victim's opinion (see, e. g., ADC, U 2797, 21 June 1906 (Bouchard)).
Levy, Rousseaux (1991, pp. 117-122) ; Martin (1990, pp.157-162) ; Badinter (1989).
That is, cases where the victim brought a civil suit for damages concurrently with the criminal proceedings brought by the state ; in 1879, 1894, 1898, 1902, 1906 and 1910 on average only one prosecution for assault or assault and wounding was supported by a civil claim ; note that witnesses were only to give oral evidence if they were called by the presiding judge, see Martin (1990, p. 176).
[Original spelling] ADC, U 3435, 19 June 1902 (Lance) ; for other such instances see ADC, U 3299, 30 June 1910 (Lemoine) ; ADC, U 2976, 26 July 1906 (Brisset) ; ADC, U 2275/110  (Dacier) ; ADC, U 3024, 3 Oct. 1910 and U 2275/118  (Féret).
The input of complainants in this matter is suggested particularly by ADC, U 2636, 30 Nov. 1889 (Catherine).
See Hélie (1920, pp. 548-549) ; Cambuzat (1879, p. 502) ; some examples from Caen are ADC, U 2542, 2 Sept. 1886 (M. Chaignard) ; ADC, U 2517, 10 Aug. 1886 (A. Thierry) ; ADC, U 2636, 30 Sept. 1891 (Clerisse) ; ADC, U 2637, 7 July 1892 (J. Ruault) ; ADC, U 2517, 13 Aug. 886 (L. Bertrand).
Note that the region of Limburg, including Maastricht, was a special case in that it had been integrated into France already in 1794.
van Boven (1990) ; Bosch (1992, pp. 19-23) ; on the prosecution of tax offences see Wortel (1991, pp. 29-30).
See, e. g., Faber (1993, pp. 13, 16, 9) in Maastricht a proportion of criminal complaints were referred to the prosecutor's office by other agencies, in particular the Koninklijke Maréchaussée, a small state police unit which was deployed especially to police rural vagrancy.
In 1890 16 prosecutions were instituted out of a case-load of 22 complaints of theft, embezzlement, or receiving stolen goods, referred by the Maastricht police to the Public Prosecutor attached to the local Arrondissemental Court, in 1894 the rate was 21 :25, in 1898 32 :36, and in 1906 35 :43 ; we have excluded 1902 as a sample year given it includes an exceptionally high number of juvenile thefts, most of which remained unprosecuted for sources : see note 13.
Police case books have been preserved for the early 1880s and the 1900s for an example see GAM, Arch. Comm.v.Pol., Nr. 46 (« Dagboek », ).
The analysis is based on court registers and covers all minor property offences committed in the towns of Caen and Maastricht and processed by local courts (for definitions see notes 10&11) ; sources : see notes 9 and 12 ; the figures for Maastricht are as follows : (1890) 6.5/10, 000 (32, 292 inhab.), (1894) 8.7/10, 000 (33, 149 inhab.), (1898) 10.8/10, 000 (34,006 inhab.), (1902) 7.4/10,000 (35,199 inhab.), (1906) 10.1/10,000 (36,504 inhab.) ; for Caen : (1879) 17.5/10,000 (39,864 inhab.), (1894) 26.3/10,000 (44,087 inhab.), (1898) 21.8/10,000 (44,459 inhab.), (1902) 28.5/10,000 (44,830 inhab.), (1906) 24.5/10,000 (45,201 inhab.) ; for national trends see criminal statistics.
Patterns of judicial repression of petty public order offences are discussed in the second part of this article.
For a personal view of the « true » amount of larcenies and burglaries in Maastricht see Notulen van de gemeenteraad van Maastricht, 1902, p. 515.
In the French case, by comparison, on average only 27 % of prosecutions fall into these categories ; by detection techniques that implied police involvement we understand those mentioned in categories 4 to 6, to 12, and 14 to 19 of Table 1.
Both French and Dutch state prosecutors of this period were repeatedly urged by their superiors to seriously consider the desirability of initiating prosecution ; see, e. g., Badinter (1992, p. 302) ; Faber (1993, p. 16).
Lévy, Rousseaux (1991, pp. 114-124).
Rosanvallon (1990, pp. 97-109) ; Schafer (1997, pp. 1-13).
On political conformity within the judiciary and judicial handling of political crime see, e. g., Royer, Martinage, Lecocq (1982, pp. 365-375) ; Tanguy (1990).
Lévy, Rousseaux (1991, p. 124).
See, e. g., de Bruin (s. d.) ; te Velde (1994, pp. 49-52) ; Dudink (1994, pp. 132-135) ; for a comparative view see de Swaan (1988).
Faber, van Ruller (1997).
Thane (1990, pp. 1-2, 35-36, 47).
Conley (1991, pp. 6, 16, 41-42, 203-204).
Harris (1993, pp. 10-11, 213-214) ; McKibbin (1990, pp. 24, 38) ; Johnson (1993, p. 166) ; an exemplary sociological study is Carlen (1976, esp. pp. 38, 63, 128).
Davis (1984) ; Emsley (1987, pp. 154-162) ; Conley (1991, pp. 12, 19) ; Radzinowicz, Hood (1986, p.741) ; Skyrme (1991, pp. 221, 316-317) ; Report R. . Divorce, vol., q. 980 (testim. of Justice Bargrave Dean, Divorce Court judge), q. 2900 (testim. of Charles H. Pickstone, County Court registrar, Bury (Lancs.)).
In contrast with the rules of ceremony and degree of solemnity of English higher courts and the Caen and Maastricht courts discussed the argument draws on Rouland (1988, pp. 460-462).
Report R. . Divorce, vol., q. 7643 (testimony of Theodore W. Fry, stipendiary magistrate of Middlesborough) ; note also the observation of a Dutch lawyer working in London that the audiences of London police courts were wholly unaware of the fact that the presiding magistrates were actually lawyers, see Kropveld (1910, p. 41).
The Ipswich magistrates described justice as « the quintessence of common sense » (Ipswich Corporation, Proceedings of meetings of the Town Council, 1902-1903, p. 2).
The 17th and 18th centuries saw the first moves towards increased control over « consensual » offences such as drunkenness, speeding with a cart, uttering profane oaths, etc. ; see, e. g., Landau (1984) ; Faber (1983, pp. 95-96) ; Farge (1983, pp. 84-86).
See, e. g., Emsley (1991, p. 70) ; Bernard (1987, pp. 128, 132) ; Manneke (1993, pp. 7, 92).
Radzinowicz, Hood (1986, p. 119).
See, e. g., Wiener (1990, pp. 257, 264).
See, e. g., Schnapper (1991, pp. 379-380) ; Wortel (1991, p. 30) ; Bosch (1992, pp. 25-26) ; Arthurs (1985).
For instance, an outfitter was tried and convicted of public drunkenness only one day after his arrest he was the only person to have been tried on that day, see SC, 25 May 1889, p.6 and SRO, BB 15/2/1 (W. . Poppy) ; see Stone's Justices’ Manual (1891, pp. 39, 29).
The latter draws upon observations about metropolitan police courts, see Gamon (1907, p. 97).
In France proceedings were generally initiated with a simple warning notice instead of a summons which tended only to be used when the accused defaulted, see Dalloz (1894, veprocédure criminelle, pp. 464-465).
According to A.J. Rethaan Macaré, Public Prosecutor of Haarlem, in H[andelingen der] N[ederlandse] J[uristen-]V[ereeniging], 1895, 26, p. 198.
No Police Court registers have been preserved of Caen, but those of Elbeuf, a Norman textile town of some 20, 000 inhabitants, suggest that cases of disorderly behaviour and scuffles were heard within a similar length of time as in Maastricht : see, e. g., A[rchives] D[épartementales de la] S[eine] M[aritime], 4 U 2255, Justice de Paix d'Elbeuf, Jugts. e simple police, 5 June 1900 (Dorival) ibid., « Enquêtes en matière de simple police’ (1900-1906), 6 Aug. 1901 (Potel), 4 Feb. 1902 (Poulard), and [Oct. 1904] (Nehr).
With regard to the former see, e. g., Wiener (1990, pp. 263-264) ; Vidal (1903, p. 318) ; van Hamel (1884, p. 268).
Hélie (1920, p. 203) ; van der Feltz (1896, p. 437).
van der Feltz (1896, p. 437) ; Cnopius (1896, p. 270) ; A.J. Rethaan Macaré in HNJV, 1895, 26, pp. 198-199.
On France see Perrot, Robert (1989, p. clii) ; report presented by M. Du Mouceau (Public Prosecutor of Beaune) to the International Penitentiary Congress, in : Actes (1906, p. 94) ; similar figures can be found regarding the Police Courts of the arrondissement of Caen in the 1900s (see ADC, U 8879, draft of Statistique criminelle [1905&1909]) ; for Dutch practices see Crimineele Statistiek (1909, p. xlii).
We have analysed all convictions for petty public order offences (public drunkenness, drunk and disorderly behaviour, offences under the licensing laws, breach of the peace, wilful damage, and offences under local Acts regulating behaviour in public places (e. g., using obscene language) tried in Ipswich in 1886 –it shows that three-quarters of convicted defendants were fined ; source : SRO, BB 15/2/1/5&6 .
Radzinowicz, Hood (1986, pp. 649-651) ; see also Howard Association Report, 1896, pp. 10-11 ; Howard Association Report, 1906, pp. 22-23.
By law the distress procedure which was compulsory in case of a summary offence of a non-criminal nature, could be ignored if it appeared that the defendant either had no goods or would be harmed more by the procedure than by imprisonment (see Stone's Justices’ Manual (1891, p. 51)) ; see, e. g., SC, 16 April 1892, p.7 (H. Smith).
van der Does de Willebois (1891, pp. 90-91) ; Cnopius (1896, p. 269) ; van der Feltz (1896, p. 440) ; Van Hamel (1884, p. 270) ; A. . Rethaan Macaré in HNJV, 26, 1895, p. 199.
Reports presented by R. Demogue, M. Dubois, M. Du Mouceau, and J.-A. Roux to the Internat. Penitent. Congress, in : Actes (1906, pp. 25-26, 41, 102-104, 112-113) ; Dalloz (1893, v.e peine, pp. 708-709) ; technically speaking, fine defaulters were imprisoned for non-payment of a debt (contrainte par corps).
On popular attendance and press coverage see, e. g., Davis (1984, pp. 316-317) ; Behlmer (1994, pp.232-235) ; and D'Cruze (1999, pp. 51-52) ; with reference to the Ipswich magistrates’ court see, e. g., SC, 29 Jan. 1887, Suppl. p. 2 (R. Manning) and SC, 16 Sept. 1893, p. 7 (W. Adams).
On the presentation of evidence in the Dutch and French cases see Hélie (1920, pp. 201, 204, 212-213) ; van der Feltz (1896, p. 437) ; van Swinderen (1884, p. 47).
Even in very petty cases magistrates were entitled to issue an arrest warrant ; in one such instance, the Ipswich magistrates did so in order to proceed against a person charged with wilfully ringing a door bell (see SRO, BB 15/1/1/1, Ipswich Petty Sessions, Minute book, 20 Feb. 1879) ; see also Stone's Justices’ Manual (1891, p. 37).
To be allowed time to pay an accused had to be present and put his/her case – often without success ; see, e. g., SC, 16 April 1892, p. 7 (H. Smith) and SC, 3 April 1886, Suppl. p. 1 (M. . Nunn).
Reference could be made to instances of juveniles prosecuted for throwing stones in which parents successfully made a case for the bench to be lenient and impose a smaller fine or another penalty, see SC, 16 Oct. 1886, Suppl. p. 3 (W. Smith) ; SC, 16 Jan. 1897, p. 6 (W. Pulham) ; SC, 13 March 1897, p. 3 (L. Haddock).
The published judicial statistics aggregate this type of information the estimates are drawn from two drafts of arrondissemental judicial statistics of 1905 and 1909 prepared by the parquet of Caen (see ADC, U 8879, draft of Statistique criminelle [1905&1909]) ; for definitions of these offences see note 119.
Pujo (1894, p. 142) ; [Kahn] (1921, p. 239).
van der Does de Willebois (1891, p. 97) Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (1986, p. 21).
See, e. g., Faure (1882, p. 321).
van der Does de Willebois (1891, pp. 82, 89) ; van der Feltz (1896, p. 436).
Briet (1915, p. 51) ; on popular attendance at Cantonal Court proceedings in the 1890s see van der Does de Willebois (1891, p. 84) Karsten in HNJV, 1895, 26, p. 118.
Pujo (1894, p. 141-142) Dalloz (1894, veprocedure criminelle, p. 467).
Judicial Statistics, 1880-1905 (PP 1881-PP 1907) ; after 1898 these public order offences were classified in one statistical category.
Minor violations represented 70 % of all court cases ; based on national figures (covering the quinquennium 1876-1880) computed from Perrot, Robert (1989, pp. cxxxviii, cxlviii, ciii).
Santucci (1986) ; Chatelard (1981) ; Désert (1981, pp. 237-238, 308-309, 311) relies on published criminal justice statistics – however, figures regarding the criminal jurisdiction of individual Police Courts are comprised in the civil justice statistics from 1886 onwards.
Table 3 ; the ressort of the Tribunal de Simple Police of Caen, the cantons Caen-Ouest and Caen-Est, consisted of the town of Caen, combined with 11 small communes, with town dwellers making up 87 to 91 % of the total population of the jurisdiction ; published figures do not allow us to establish the relation between the number of prosecutions and the number of accused ; however, unpublished data show that in 1905 and 1909 in the arrondissement of Caen the latter figure was on average about 10 % higher than the former (see ADC, U 8879).
The correspondence between these two charges and the English offences of drunkenness, drunk and disorderly behaviour, and breach of the peace has also been noted in Perrot, Robert (1989, pp. xcvi-xcvii) ; note that the figures presented do not include a number of cases of public drunkenness tried by the Correctional Court which was entitled to do so either when public drunkenness was committed in conjunction with a correctional offence or following two previous convictions for the same offence within the same year (récidive d'ivresse).
The ratio of prosecutions to population (minor violations) in the city of Rouen was 1 to 35 in 1893 and 1 to 37 in 1895 (3122 and 3012 minor violations resp.for approximately 112000 inhabitants) ; see ADSM, 5 M 276, dossier 1893 Rouen & dossier 1895 Rouen.
Based on unpublished aggregate statistics covering the arrondissement of Caen the supposition is that given the Police Court of Caen took up 60 % of all Police Court business within the arrondissement, at least 60 % of all cases of public drunkenness and tapages were likely to have been handled by the Caen Police Court (see ADC, U 8879, draft of Statistique criminelle [1905&1909]).
Following the introduction of the new Penal Code prosecutions for minor violations represented over 80 % of all Dutch criminal cases ; based on national figures of prosecutions brought in Cantonal Courts and Arrondissemental Courts from 1886 to 1890 ; see Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (1986, p. 15).
Table 4 the jurisdiction of the Cantonal Court of Maastricht, the kanton of Maastricht, included the town and 14 small municipalities, with the inhabitants of Maastricht making up 62 % of the total population of the ressort.
The charges of public drunkenness (dronkenschap op de openbare weg) and disorderly behaviour (nachtelijke geruchten) correspond with the same charges in French law ; the figures represent numbers of minor violations committed in the town of Maastricht source : Verslag van de toestand van de gemeente Maastricht, 1880-1905.
In addition, more research is needed to determine the comparative costs of prosecution and the financial limits within which the judicial system had to operate for some English research in the field of middle– and high-ranking offences see Taylor (1998) their effects are likely to have been less significant in the field of « consensual » crime given prosecution and court costs were relatively low.
Petro (1994, . 217).
Ipswich Corporation, Proceedings of the Town Council, 1902-1903, pp. 69-70 ; SRO, DB 32/12, Watch Committee minutes (1881-87), 8 Oct. 886 ; SRO, DF 3/1, Ipswich Borough Police, Police Order Book (1881-89), 9 Oct. 1886.
Gamon (1907, pp. vii-viii) ; see also Behlmer (1994, p. 232).
Gamon (1907, p. xiii) ; some thirty years later another observer of magistrates’ courts again emphasised their impact on popular perceptions, suggesting that they were « with few exceptions the only law court the poor man ever knows and those, therefore, from which he derives his sole experience of the justice under which he lives », Page (1936, p. 37).
van Hamel (1884, p. 271) ; see also Bool (1887, p. 121) ; Cnopius (1896, p. 269).
ADC, U 2542, 2 Sept. 1886 (M. Chaignard).
Taylor (1998, pp. 588-589) emphasises how prosecution levels and prison sentences with respect to « serious » crime were increasingly guided by budgets and bureaucratic norms.
Trial proceedings begin with the hearing of testimony and presentation of evidence and conclude with the declaration of a verdict ; in the Netherlands only the final stages of a trial (i. e., concluding statements and declaration of verdict) had been public before 1848 ; see Bossers (1987).
van der Does de Willebois (1891, p. 82) ; van der Feltz (1896, p. 436).
For such proposals see van Hamel (1884, pp. 298-299) ; Briët (1915, p. 51) ; [Kahn] (1921, pp. 241-242).
These points draw upon McBarnett (1981, pp. 143-153, 166-167) ; this leads to a refinement of E. . Thompson's argument that the very articulation of economic, political or cultural interests in law acted as a constraint upon such interests and that, in order for criminal justice to serve an ideological function, the ideals of « justice » and judicial rhetoric had to be lived up to, imposing further restraints upon law enforcement agents and other participants in the legal process ; we would suggest that the French and Dutch cases offer better illustrations than the English case. The relative malleability of English law seems to have enabled those participating in magisterial justice to a greater degree to appear to uphold dominant ideals of justice.
Their pre-eminence is assumed by writers such as McKibbin (1990, pp. 24, 38).
E. g., SC, 17 Oct. 1891, p. 6 ; EADT, 14 June 1904, p. 5.
See, e. g., Smith (1982, pp. 225-247) ; Morris (1990, pp. 318-331) ; Hills (1988).
On the cultural meaning of the spectacle of courtroom proceedings in mid-19th century France see Fisher Taylor (1993, pp. xviii-xxi, 5-6, 106).
See, e. g. Tombs (1996, pp. 99-101, 04) ; Burdeau (1989, pp. 188, 98, 33-334) ; Rosanvallon (1990, pp. 80-81).
Unfortunately, Faber (1983, pp. 270-279) does not raise any comparative questions.Haut de page